Pembahasan tentang Algoritma Genetik

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Determiner (class)

Determiner (class)
For the function in NP structure, see Determiner (function).
A determiner is a class of words that typically functions as a determiner (function) in noun phrases. As such, they establish the reference of a noun or noun phrase, including quantity, rather than its attributes as expressed by adjectives. Despite this tendency, determiners have a variety of functions including, in English, modifiers in adjective phrases and determiner phrases, and even markers of coordination.
This word class, or part of speech, exists in many languages, including English, though most English dictionaries still classify determiners under other parts of speech. Determiners usually include articles, and may include items like demonstratives, possessive determiners, quantifiers, and cardinal numbers, depending on the language.

English determiners
Determiners, in English, form a closed class of words that number (exclusive of cardinal numerals) about 50 and include[1]:
• Alternative-additive Determiners: another, other, somebody else
• Articles: a, an, the
• Cardinal Numbers: one, two, fifty, etc.
• Degree Determiners: many, much, few, little...
• Demonstratives: this, that, these, those, which
• Disjunctive Determiners: either, neither
• Distributive Determiners: each, every
• Elective Determiners: any, either, wichever
• Equative Determiners: the same
• Evaluative Determiners: such
• Exclamative Determiners: what eyes!
• Existential Determiners: some, any
• Interrogative and Relative Determiners: which, what, whichever, whatever
• Negative Determiners: no, neither
• Personal Determiners: we teachers, you guys
• Positive-multal Determiners: a lot of, many, several
• Positive-paucal Determiners: a few, a little, some
• Possessive Determiners: my, your, our, etc.
• Qualitative Determiners: that
• Quantifiers: all, few, many, several, some, every, each, any, no, etc.
• Sufficiency Determiners: enough, sufficient
• Uniquitive Determiners: the only
• Universal Determiners: all, both
The two categories into which every one of these determiners can be classified are those of the definite determiners, which limit their reference back to a specific already mentioned entity, and the indefinite determiners, which broaden their referent to one which has not been previously specified, or has just been newly introduced into discourse.
While many words belong to this lexical category exclusively, others belong to a number of categories, for example, the pronoun what in What is good as opposed to the determiner what in what one is good. While numerals exist as nouns, it is debated whether numerals are determiners or not[2]. For instance, the English numerals for 100 or larger need a determiner, such as "a hundred men." Similarly, while pronouns like my, your, etc. function as determiners in a noun phrase, many grammars do not make the distinction between class and function and so lump these in with determiners.
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1. Jason father bought him the bicycle that he had wanted for this birthday.
2. The statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship nfrom France to United states.

3. Rita is studying English and math this semester.
4. The judge asked the witness to tell the truth.
5. Plese give me a cup of coffeewith cream and sugar.
6. The big books on the table are for my history class.
7. No one in Spanish class knew the correct answer to Mrs.Perez’s question.
8. My car is four years old and still runs well.
9. When you go to the store, please buy a bottle of chocolate milk and a dozen oranges.
10. There are only a few seats left for tonight’s musical at the university.
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tenses 2

Simple Present and present progressive

Something smells (smell) very good
We are eating (eat) diner of seven o'clock tonight
He practices (practice) the piano every day
They are driving (drive) to school tomorrow
I believing (believe) you
Maria has (have) a cold
Jorge is swimming (swim) right now
Jhon hates (hate) smoke
Jil always gets (get) up at 6.00 am
Jerry is mowing (mow) the lawn now

Simple past tense and past progressive
Gene was eat (eat) dinner when his friend called
While maria was cleaning the apartment,her husband was sleeping (sleep)
At three o'clock this morning, Eleanor was studying (study)
When mark arrived, the Jhonsons were having (have) dinner, but they stopped a order to talk to him
John went (go) to France last year
When the teacher enter (enter) the room, the studies were talking
While john was writing the report, henry was looking (look) for more information
We saw (see) this movie last night
At the time, Mr Roberts owned (own) this building
Jose was writing (write) a letter to his family. when his pencil broke (break).

Present perfect and simple past
John wrote (write) his report last night
Bob has seen (see) this movie before
Jorge has read (read) the news paper already
Mr Jhonson has work (work) in the same place for thirty five year and he is not planing to retrive get
We haven't begin (begin/negative) to study for he test yet
George went (go) to the store at ten o'clock this morning.
Joan has travel (travel) around the world
Betty wrote (write) a letter last night
Guilermo called (call) his employer yesterday
We haven't seen(see/negative) this movie ye
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Present Continuous Tenses

Kalimat Present Continous Tenses dibentuk dengan cara sebagai beikut :

Subject + am/is/are + kata kerja bentuk “ing”

- I am studying English now.
- He is reading a book at a moment.
- You are writing a letter in the room.
Kalimat dalam bentuk Present Continuous Tenses digunakan untuk:
1. Menyatakan suatu kejadian atau perbuatan yang sedang dilakukan sekarang.
- I am studying English now.
- He is listening to the radio at a moment.
- We are going to the mvie tonight
Menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau rencana yang segera akan dilaksanakan di waktu yang akan dating.
- I am leaving tomorrow morning.
- She is going to the movie tonight.

Simple Past Tenses

Simple Past Tenses digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang terjadi atau dilakukan pada waktu yang telah lalu, adapun bentuknya adalah:

Subject + kata kerja bentuk ke-2 (preterite)

- I played football yesterday morning.
- He studied English last week.
- Rudy and rita worked at the post office.
Simple Past Tenses dalam bentuk kalimat nominal.

Untuk membuat kalimat nominal (menggunakan to be) dalam simple past tenses, maka to be yang digunakan adalah “was” dan “were” yang diikuti oleh kata benda, kata sifat dan kata keterangan waktu.
- I was bussy yesterday morning.
- You were in London last month.
- Rudy and rita were happy to hear that news.

Present Perfect Tenses

Kalimat dalam bentuk present perfect tenses digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian atau kegiatan yang dilakukan pda waktu yang telah lalu. Adapun bentuk dari kalimat present perfect tetses adalah sebagai berikut:

Subject + have/has + kata kerja bentuk ke-3 (past participle)
- I have waited you for two hours.
- You have visited bali.
- We have finished that job.

Penggunaan kalimat present perfect tenses
Manyatakan suatu kejadian atau perbuatan yang telah selesai dilakukan pada waktu yang lau tanpa ketetapan waktu yang pasti (entah kapan) tetapi ada hasilnya, biasanya menggunakan keterangan already, just atau yet.
- I have already seen that film. (saya sudah menonton film itu)
Kalimat ini berarti bahwa saya sudah menonton film itu di waktu yang lalu, entah kapan dan ada hasilnya, yaitu saya dapat menceritakan film itu.
- I have had my lunch. (saya sudah makan siang)
- He has typed the letter (ia sudah mengetik surat)

2. Menyatakan suatu kejadian atau perbuatan yang terjadi dwaktu lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai saat bicara.
- I have lived in bandung since 1990.(saya telah tinggal di bandung sejak 1990)
Kaimat ini berarti bahwa saya sudah tinggal di badung sejak tahun 1990 dan sampai saat saya berbicara, saya masih tinggal di bandung.
- I have worked there for along time.( saya sudah bekerja dikantor itu sejak lama)
- We have ever visited your house. (kami sudah pernah berkunjung ke rumahmu)
Perbedaan yang sangat prinsipil antara Simple Present Perfect dengan simple past tenses yang perlu diketahui adalah:
Dalam present perfect tenses, lebih ditekankan pada kejadian atau perbuatan yang dilakukan, sedangkan dalam simple past tenses lebih ditekankan pada waktu kejadiannya di masa lampau.
Perhatikan dengan cermat dan bandingkan kalimat dibawah ini:
- I have seen that film. (penekanan pada perbuatan: have seen).
- I saw that film yesterday. (penekanan pada waktu:yesterday).
- We have written that letter.
- We wrote that letter last week.

Jadi apabila kita ingin menyatakan suatu kejadian atau perbuatan di masa yang lampau tanpa menyebutkan keterangan waktunya, sebaiknya gunakanlah bentuk present perfect tenses.
Present perfect tenses dalam bentuk kalimat nominal.
Dalam kalimat nominal, present perfect tenses dibentuk dengan menggunakan “been” sebagai to be, yang diikuti kata benda, kata sifat, atau keterangan. Perhatikan dan bandingkan dengan penggunaan “be” pada future tenses.
- I have been bussy for two weeks
- He has been a teacher for five years.
- We have been in Jakarta since 1990.
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Past Perfect

Past Perfect

.:S + had + V3 + O:.

The Past perfect is used to indicate

* An action that happend before another action in the past,There usually are two actions in the sentence

. John had gone to the store before he went home
. John told us yesterday, that he had visited england in 1970

S + had + V3 + before + S + V2

. John went home after he had gone to the store

S + V2 + after + S + had + V3

. Before John went home, he had gone to the store

Before + S + V2 + S + had + V3

.After John had gone to the store, he went home.

After + S + had + V3 + S + V2

* A state which continued for a tim in the past, but stopped before now.

. Abdul had live in new york for ten year before he moved to california

Past Perfect Progresive (continous) for category 2 of past perfect only, we can use the past perfect continous
S + had + been + Ving + ...

. Abdul had been living in New York for ten years before he moved to california


1. The policemen read the suspect his right after he had arrested (arrest) him
2. After John had wash (wash) his clothes. he began to study.
3. George had waited (wait) for one hour before the bus come
4. Maria entered (enter) the university after she had graduated from the community college
5. Jeanette washed (wash) the pipettes after she had completed the experiment
6. Jane sent a letter to her university after she has received (receive) he scholarship check
7. After the stewardesses had served lunch to the passengers, they the sat (sit) down
8. The car had flipped (flip) the time before it landed on its roof
9. we corrected our papers after we had taken (take) the quit
10. John had lived (live) in miami for one year when his parents come to visit
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1. Personal Pronouns

Yaitu kata ganti orang, baik orang pertama, orang kedua maupun orang ketiga. Personal Pronouns berfungsi sebagai:

a. Nominative Subjective, yaitu menjadi subjek kalimat. I, we, you, they, he, she, it.

* I study English
* You are my new secretary.

b. Objective, yaitu menjadi objek kalimat. Me, us, you, them, him, her, it.

* She brings me a cup of coffee.
* I make you a kite.

2. Demonstrative Pronouns (Kata Ganti Penunjuk)

* This, that, those, these.
* This is your book.
* Those are my pencils.


Keempat kata di atas juga dapat dijumpai dalam Demonstrative Adjectives. Perbedaan penggunaannya hanya pada penggunaan kata benda (nouns) setelah keempat kata di atas untuk Demonstrative Adjectives.

* This book is yours (this = adjectives)
* This is your book. (this = pronouns)
* These are your pencils. (these = pronouns)

3. Possessive Pronouns

Yaitu kata ganti yang menunjukkan kepemilikan. Mine, yours, theirs, ours, his, hers.

* This house is mine. (mine = Possessive Pronouns).
* This is my house. (my=Possessive Adjectives).

4. Relative Pronouns

Yaitu kata yang menggantikan kata yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya.

Kata-kata yang dipakai adalah:

a. Menggantikan subjek.

Who (orang)
Which, that (benda, binatang)

b. Menggantikan Objek

whom (orang)
which, that (benda, binatang)

c. Menggantikan kepunyaan

whose (orang)
of which (benda, binatang)


Semua kata-kata di atas (who, whom, whose, which, that, dan of which) dalam bahasa Indonesia artinya ‘Yang”.


* The man who cuts my hair is my uncle (Laki-laki yang memangkas rambut saya adalah paman saya).
* I am waiting for the man whom you are talking about.
* She borrows the novel of which cover is purple.
* Pembahasan lebih lanjut mengenai topic ini akan dibahas pada topic Adjective Clause.

5. Interrogative Pronouns

Yaitu kata Tanya yang digunakan untuk mengawali suatu pertanyaan.
Kata yang dipakai adalah who, what, whom, dan which.

* Who are you?
* What is the color of your house? (what = Pronouns)
* What color is your house? (what = Adjectives)
* Which is your pen? (which = Pronouns)
* Which pen is yours? (which = Adjectives)

6. Indefinite Pronouns (Kata Ganti Tak Tentu)

Kata-kata yang sering dipakai adalah: another, anybody, something, everyone, much, neither, one, none, dll.

* All work is not dull, some is pleasant.
* Most of the cars are new.
* Nobody is at home.

7. Reflexive Pronouns

Yaitu kata ganti yang merupakan pantulan dari kata ganti (Pronouns) itu sendiri.

Perhatikan bentuk kata ganti jenis ini:

I = myself
You = yourself (kamu)
You = yourselves (kalian)
We = ourselves
They = themselves
He = himself
She = herself
It = itself


* I cut myself with a knife (saya kena pisau)
* They love themselves.
* I help myself this morning.

8. Intensive Pronouns

Yaitu kata ganti yang juga merupakan pantulan dari kata ganti itu sendiri. Namun, letaknya sesudah nouns/pronouns itu sendiri. Kata ganti jenis ini berfungsi untuk lebih menekankan / menegaskan maksud pembicaraan.


* Henry himself who told me so. (Henry sendirilah yang mengatakan begitu kepadaku)
* Mary herself repaired the computer. (Mary sendirilah – bukan orang lain – yang memperbaiki computer itu)
* Jack himself gave me the book.


Berhati-hatilah dengan penggunaan kata gantu jenis ini. Perhatikan 3 contoh kalimat di bawah ini dan perhatikan perbedaannya.

* Alex does the test himself. (= Alex mengerjakan test itu sendiri – tanpa bantuan orang lain)
* Ted himself does the test. (=Ted sendirilah – bukan orang lain – yang mengerjakan test itu)
* Bob does the test by himself. (= Bob mengerjakan test itu sendirian – tidak ada orang lain bersama dia)

9. Reciprocal Pronouns

Yaitu kata ganti yang menyatakan hubungan timbale balik antara 2 atau lebih.

Frase yang digunakan adalah:

* Each other = satu sama lain (2 orang)
* One another = satu sama lain ( lebih dari 2 orang)


* Henry and Elizabeth loves each other. (Henry & Elizabeth saling mencintai/ Henry & Elizabeth mencintai satu sama lainnya)
* All children love one another.
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